Lesson 27: Art Nouveau and Art Deco

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What You Will Learn:

  • Explore All Art Movements and Periods

    You will learn about all the leading art movements and periods, such as primitive art, ancient Greek art, the Renaissance, Romanticism, Impressionism, Modernism, and contemporary art. There is also a lot of attention to non-Western art, such as Islamic Art, Hindu Art, Chinese Art, Oceanic Art and African Art, and the globalization of the art world.

  • All Famous Artists and Their Masterpieces

    The course covers important artists like Sultan Muhammad, Fan Kuan, Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Utagawa Hiroshige, Vincent van Gogh, Ilya Repin, Pablo Picasso, Marc Chagall, Frida Kahlo, Andy Warhol, Keith Haring, Banksy and many more, and discusses their most influential works.

  • Cultural and Historical Context

    Our courses also focus on the study of the cultural, social, political, and economic contexts in which artworks are created.

  • Various Media and Techniques

    You will explore different art forms and techniques, such as painting, sculpture, printmaking, photography, and digital art.

Introduction to this course:

 

When it comes to the world of art and design, two terms that are often confused with each other are the style periods Art Nouveau and Art Deco. However, these are style periods that were not in vogue simultaneously but succeeded each other. Art Nouveau, a French term, is often referred to as Jugendstil in Germany, while in Spain, this artistic movement was known as Modernismo. Others used terms such as Wiener Secession style, Stile Floreale, or Modern Style, while Americans called it the Tiffany style; the British referred to it as the Glasgow style. In Amsterdam, it was also called Nieuwe Kunst, a translation of the French term. Many names for various movements in art, the world of design, and architecture that emerged between 1880 and 1914.

Afbeelding: Tijdens de periode van de Art Nouveau probeerden ook de glasblazers nieuwe technieken, kleuren, vormen en materialen uit. Geïnspireerd door Aziatische tradities ontwikkelde de Franse kunstenaar Émile Gallé (1846–1904) een speciale techniek die men noemde cameo-glas. De glasblazers smolten twee tot drie dunne lagen glas in verschillende kleuren over elkaar heen om vervolgens dieren- en bloemmotieven uit het glas te snijden, te etsen of te graveren. Bloemen en planten waren bij Gallé favoriete onderwerpen in zijn glasontwerpen, zoals op de afgebeelde vaas is te zien. Het resultaat was een veelkleurig glas. De techniek kreeg grote populariteit in heel Europa. De getoonde glazen vaas van Émile Gallé is gemaakt van cameo glas met emailschildering. Het is geproduceerd door Cristallerie de Gallé. 
Locatie: Deze glazen vaas uit de periode 1900 tot 1904 is in het bezit van het Nordenfjeldske Kunstindustrimuseet in Trondheim, maar is uitgeleend aan het Jugendstilsenteret dat is gevestigd in een oude apotheek uit 1907. Het is zowel een museum als een nationaal centrum van Art Nouveau. Ook de apotheek zelf is gebouwd in de stijl van de Art Nouveau, net als veel andere gebouwen in de Noorse stad Alesund. Het kunstmuseum KUBE is via een ondergrondse gang verbonden met het Jugendstilsenteret en is gevestigd in het voormalige kantoorgebouw van Norges Bank (1906). De ingang van het Jugendstilsenteret vindt u aan de Apotekergata 16 in het dentrum van de Noorse stad Alesund. Het centrum van deze stad brandde in 1904 geheel af, waarna men het centrum van Alesund herbouwde in de stijl van de Art Nouveau. Image: During the Art Nouveau period, glassblowers also experimented with new techniques, colors, shapes, and materials. Inspired by Asian traditions, the French artist Émile Gallé (1846–1904) developed a special technique called cameo glass. Glassblowers fused two to three thin layers of glass in different colors on top of each other and then carved, etched, or engraved animal and flower motifs into the glass. Flowers and plants were favorite subjects in Gallé’s glass designs, as seen on the depicted vase. The result was multicolored glass. This technique gained great popularity across Europe. The featured glass vase by Émile Gallé is made of cameo glass with enamel painting. It was produced by Cristallerie de Gallé.
Location: This glass vase from the period 1900 to 1904 is in the possession of the Nordenfjeldske Kunstindustrimuseet in Trondheim but is on loan to the Jugendstilsenteret, located in an old pharmacy from 1907 in the Norwegian town of Ålesund. It serves as both a museum and a national center for Art Nouveau. The pharmacy itself is built in the Art Nouveau style, as are many other buildings in the Norwegian city of Ålesund. The art museum KUBE is connected to the Jugendstilsenteret by an underground passage and is housed in the former office building of Norges Bank (1906). The entrance to the Jugendstilsenteret is located at Apotekergata 16 in the center of Ålesund, Norway. The city center of Ålesund burned down entirely in 1904, after which Ålesund was rebuilt in the Art Nouveau style. ©Ronnie Rokebrand.

The term Art Nouveau (New Art) was aptly chosen for this brand new art movement. Until that point, new art styles had always had roots in the past, in previous art movements. For example, as a reaction to a previous art movement or as a return to an art movement from the past. In the case of Art Nouveau, this was not the case. It truly represented New Art. Initially, Art Nouveau was primarily confined to the applied arts, but soon architects and painters also felt drawn to this new art movement. Ultimately, very few things escaped this restyling. Jewelry, books, clothing, as well as train stations and houses, were built in the new Art Nouveau style.

Art Deco wandbord met bloemmotieven en een groene rand van voor 1920
Image: Beautiful Art Nouveau wall plate from Gouda with stylized, floral motifs. The flowing lines resemble plant motifs, and it seems as though the central part of the wall plate has organically grown together. This is characteristic of Art Nouveau. The green border indicates that the wall plate is from before 1920.
Location: This Art Nouveau wall plate is part of the collection of the Gooise Galerie, an online gallery in the Netherlands. ©Ronnie Rokebrand.

The organic and flowing forms of Art Nouveau

The era of Art Nouveau lasted from around 1880 to the outbreak of World War I, while the period from 1918 into the 1930s is known as Art Deco. After that, modernist styles took over the creative power in the art world. The main characteristics of Art Nouveau were the organic and flowing forms. These forms were translated into graceful, dreamy, and floral motifs in the arts, but sometimes also into geometric and simple designs. They were a direct reaction of the art world, especially in architecture, to the old classical and more hierarchical structures. In artistic circles, there was a clear desire to move away from all the neo-styles of the industrial revolution era. Taking nature as an example, artists used flowing lines in their work.

Deze eetkamer toont de grote diversiteit van de art nouveau zoals die door de beoefenaars van die tijd werd gemanifesteerd. De stijl is typisch multidisciplinair die hun ontwerpen fysiek realiseerde. De kunstenaars uit de periode van de Art Nouveau werkten vaak binnen tal van genres en met verschillende materialen. Architecten ontwierpen interieurs, terwijl kunstenaars alles ontwierpen, van meubels tot reclameposters. Bekwame vakmensen waren vaak degenen die deze ontwerpen in verschillende materialen fysiek realiseerden, zoals te zien is in dit interieur.  Zowel de raampartijen, de stoelen, de wandbekleding als de gedekte tafel zijn allen in de stijl van de Art Nouveau. Deze Nieuwe Kunst cultiveerde de schoonheid, maar de beweging bevatte ook een donkerdere ondertoon, en soms lijkt de keuze van beeldtaal en kleur bij nader inzien te grenzen aan het aan het groteske.
Locatie: Deze eetkamer maakt deel uit van de voormalige apotheek uit 1907 waarin het Art Nouveau museum Jugendstilsenteret is gevestigd. Het is zowel een museum als een nationaal centrum van Art Nouveau. De ingang van het Jugendstilsenteret vindt u aan de Apotekergata 16 in het centrum van de Noorse stad Alesund. ©Ronnie Rokebrand.Image: This dining room showcases the great diversity of Art Nouveau as it was manifested by practitioners of the time. The style is typically multidisciplinary. Artists from the Art Nouveau period often worked in various genres and with different materials. Architects designed interiors, while artists designed everything from furniture to advertising posters, and from paintings to glasswork. Skilled craftsmen physically realized these designs in various materials, as seen in this interior. Both the windows, chairs, lamp, wall covering, wainscoting, ceiling decoration, and the set table are made in the Art Nouveau style. The New Art cultivated beauty, but the movement also had another side: the choice of imagery and color sometimes bordered on the grotesque.
Location: This dining room is part of the former pharmacy from 1907 in the Norwegian city of Alesund, which houses the Art Nouveau museum Jugendstilsenteret. It is both a museum and a national center for Art Nouveau. The entrance to Jugendstilsenteret is located at Apotekergata 16 in the center of the Norwegian city of Alesund. ©Ronnie Rokebrand.

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